This integrative review of the literature is an exploration of current research on the phenomenon of caring in the nurse-patient relationship. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, Google Scholar, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Ovid Nursing, ProQuest Nursing, SAGE journals online, and ScienceDirect. Data analysis was performed using Watson’s 10 Caritas Processes as a descriptive, categorical framework. Narrative summary was used to report findings. Results show emergence of complex concepts. Incongruence was found between nurses’ and patients’ perceptions. Further research is needed to generate more knowledge regarding the phenomenon of caring in the nurse-patient relationship
2. American Nurses’ Association. (2014). What is nursing? Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/ EspeciallyForYou/What-is-Nursing
3. American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American psychological association, 6
4. th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
5. Arslan-Oskan, I., Okumus, H., & Buldukoglu, K. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of the effects of nursing care based on Watson’s theory of human caring on distress, self-efficacy and adjustment in infertile women. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(8),1801- 1812. doi:10.1111/jan.12338
6. Bailey, D. N. (2009). Caring defined: A comparison and analysis. International Journal for Human Caring, 13(1), 16- 31.
7. Beckett, K. (2013). Professional wellbeing and caring: exploring a complex relationship. British Journal of Nursing, 22(19), 1118-1124.
8. Berry, D. M., Kaylor, M., Church, J., Campbell, K., McMillin, T., & Wamsley, R. (2013). Caritas and job environment: A replication of Persky et al. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 43(2), 237-243. doi:10.5172/ conu.2013.43.2.237
9. Bridges, J., Nicholson, C., Maben, J., Pope, C., Flatley, M., Wilkinson, C., … & Tziggili, M. (2012). Capacity for care: meta-ethnography of acute care nurses’experiences of the nurse-patient relationship. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(4), 760-772. doi:10.1111/ jan.12050
10. Brewer, B. B. & Watson, J. (2015). Evaluation of authentic human caring professional practices. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(12), 1-6. Retrieved from https://www. watsoncaringscience.org/files/PDF/ measurement/brewerwatson2015 jona.pdf
11. Bond, A. E., Eshah, N. F., Bani‐Khaled, M., Hamad, A. O., Habashneh, S., Kataua, H., . . . & Maabreh, R. (2011). Who uses nursing theory? A univariate descriptive analysis of five years’ research articles. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 25(2), 404-409.
12. Bowling, A. (2009). Research methods in health: Investigating health and health services. Open University Press, Maidenhead
13. Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. (1990). Caring in nursing: analysis of extant theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(4), 149-155.
14. Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S. O., Baldwin, J., & McCarthy, D. (2005). Living caring in practice: The transformative power of the theory of nursing as caring. International Journal for Human Caring, 9(3).
15. Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S. O., Smith, N., Jean, J. S., & Aleman, D. (2003). Transforming practice using a caring‐based nursing model. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 27(3), 223- 230.
16. Bridges, J., Nicholson, C., Maben, J., Pope, C., Flatley, M., Wilkinson, C., ... & Tziggili, M. (2012). Capacity for care: meta‐ethnography of acute care nurses’ experiences of the nurse‐patient relationship. Journal of advanced nursing, 69(4), 760-772.
17. Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2011). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, LLC
18. Care. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/care
19. Chen, S., Yen, W., Lin, Y., Lee, C., & Lu, Y. (2012). A Chinese version of the caring assessment report evaluation Q-sort scale for measuring patients’ perception on nurses’ caring behaviours: Reliability and validity assessment. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18(4), 388-395. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2012.02042.x
20. Chodron, P. (2008). Bodhichitta: The excellence of the awakened heart. Shambhala Sun. Retrieved from http://www.shambhalasun.com/index. php?option=content&task=view&id= 1740
21. Chokwe, M. & Wright, S. D. (2012). Caring as a core concept in educating midwifery learners: A qualitative study. Health SA Gesondheid, 17(1), 1-7. doi:10.4102/hsag.v17i1.653
22. Dalai Lama. (2001). Ethics for the new millennium. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
23. DiNapoli, P., Nelson, J., Turkel, M., & Watson, J. (2010). Measuring the caritas processes: Caring Factor Survey. International Journal for Human Caring, 14(3), 16-21.
24. Eriksson, K. (2002). Caring science in a new key. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 61–65. doi:10.1177/089431840201500110
25. Fabri, A., Alves, M., Faquim, L., Oliveira, M., Freire, P., & Lopes, F. (2013). Care in nursing: Nurse knowledge of primary health care. Journal of Nursing UFPE / Revista De Enfermagem UFPE, 7(2), 474- 480. doi:10.5205/reuol.3073-24791-1- LE.0702201320
26. Finfgeld-Connett, D. (2008). Qualitative convergence of three nursing concepts: Art of nursing, presence and caring. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(5), 527-534. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04622.x
27. Griffin, A. (1983). A philosophical analysis of caring in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 8(4), 289- 295. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1983. tb00328.x
28. Gustin, L. W. & Wagner, L. (2013). The butterfly effect of caring - clinical nursing teachers’ understanding of self-compassion as a source to compassionate care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 27(1), 175-183. doi:10.1111/j.1471- 6712.2012.01033.x
29. Hawkins, S. F., & Morse, J. (2014). The praxis of courage as a foundation for care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 46(4), 263-270. doi:10.1111/jnu.12077
30. Holopainen, G., Kasen, A., & Nystrom, L. (2014). The space of togetherness – a caring encounter. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 28, 186- 192.
31. Holopainen, G., Nystrom, L., & Kasen, A. (2014). Day by day, moment by moment – the meaning of the caring encounter. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 7(1), 51-57.
32. Jenner, C. A. (1997). The art of nursing: A concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 32(4), 5-11. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.1997. tb00970.x
33. Leininger, M. (2002). Culture care theory: A major contribution to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and practices. Journal of transcultural nursing, 13(3), 189-192.
34. Leininger, M. (1978). Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories and practices. New York, NY: Wiley Publishing.
35. McCance, T., McKenna, H., & Boore, J. (1999). Caring: theoretical perspectives of relevance to nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(6), 1388-1395. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01214.x
36. McCance, T., Slater, P., & McCormack, B. (2008). Using the caring dimensions inventory as an indicator of personcentered nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(3), 409-417. doi:10.1111/ j.1365-2702.2008.02466.x
37. Meng, M., Zhang, X., & Jiang, A. (2011). A theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context: a grounded theory study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(7), 1523-1536. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05573.x
38. Merrill, A. S., Hayes, J. S., Clukey, L., & Curtis, D. (2012). Do they really care? How trauma patients perceive nurses’ caring behaviors. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 19(1), 3-37. doi:10.1097/ JTN.0b013e318249fcac
39. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred Reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6(7): e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal. pmed.1000097
40. Nelson, J., & Watson, J. (Eds.). (2011). Measuring caring: International research on caritas as healing. Springer Publishing Company.
41. Nightingale, F. (1860/2010). Florence Nightingale’s notes on nursing: What it is and what it is not & notes on nursing for the labouring classes: Commemorative edition with commentary. V. Skretkowicz (Ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
42. Norman, V., Rossillo, K., & Skelton, K. (2016). Creating healing environments through the theory of caring. AORN Journal, 104(5), 401-409.
43. Nurse. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/nurse
44. Papastavrou, E., Efstathiou, G., & Charalambous, A. (2011). Nurses’ and patients’ perceptions of caring behaviours: quantitative systematic review of comparative studies. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(6), 1191-1205. doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2648.2010.05580.x
45. Pearcey, P. (2010). ‘Caring? It’s the little things we are not supposed to do anymore’. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1), 51-56. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01802.x
46. Pearson A. (2004). Balancing the evidence: incorporating the synthesis of qualitative data into systematic reviews. JBI Reports 2004, 2, 45-64.
47. Persky, G. J., Nelson, J. W., Watson, J., & Bent, K. (2008). Creating a profile of a nurse effective in caring. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 32(1), 15- 20.
48. Pitt, V., Powis, D., Levett-Jones, T., & Hunter, S. (2012). Factors influencing nursing students’ academic and clinical performance and attrition: An integrative literature review. Nurse Education Today, 32(8), 903-913. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2012.04.011
49. Ranheim, A., Kärner, A., & Berterö, C. (2012). Caring theory and practice-entering a simultaneous concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 47(2), 78-90. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2012.00263.x
50. Roach, M. S. (1984). Caring: The human mode of being. University of Toronto, Toronto.
51. Roach, M. S. (2002). Caring: The human mode of being: A blueprint for the health professions (2nd ed.). Ottowa, Ontario: CHA Press, Presses de L’ACS.
52. Rogers, M.E. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis, Co.
53. Roy, S.C., & Andrews, H.A. (2008). The Roy Adaptation Model (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
54. Sargent, A. (2012). Reframing caring as discursive practice: A critical review of conceptual analysis of caring in nursing. Nursing Inquiry, 19(2), 134-143. doi:10.1111/j.1440- 1800.2011.00559.x
55. Schmock, B. N., Breckenridge, D. M., Benedict, K. (2009). Effect of sacred space environment on surgical patient outcomes: A pilot study. International Journal for Human Caring,13(1), 49-
59. 56. Sossong, A., & Poirier, P. (2013). Patient and nurse perceptions of caring in rural United States. International Journal for Human Caring, 17(1), 79-85.
57. Stedman, M. (2013). The experience if caring and noncaring patient encounters of graduate registered nurses: A phenomenological study. University of Pheonix.
58. Stone, J. (2011). Minding the bedside: Nursing from the heart of the awakened mind. Minneapolis, MN: Hillcrest Publishing Group.
59. Swanson, K. M. (1991). Empirical development of a middle range theory of caring. Nursing research, 40(3), 161-165.
60. Swanson, K. M. (1993). Nursing as Informed Caring for the Well‐Being of Others. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 25(4), 352-357.
61. Taylor-Haslip, V. (2013). The lived experience of caring presence for nursing faculty and nursing students. City University of New York.
62. Todaro-Franceschi, V. (2013). Compassion fatigue and burnout in nursing: Enhancing professional quality of life. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC
63. Vouzavali, F. J., Papathanassoglou, E. D., Karanikola, M. N., Koutroubas, A., Patiraki, E. I., & Papadatou, D. (2011). ‘The patient is my space’: hermeneutic investigation of the nurse‐patient relationship in critical care. Nursing in critical care, 16(3), 140-151.
64. Watson, J. (2009). Caring science and human caring theory: transforming personal and professional practices of nursing and health care. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 31(4), 466-482.
65. Watson, J. (2010). Caring science and the next decade of holistic healing: Transforming self and system from the inside out. Beginnings (American Holistic Nurses’ Association), 30(2), 14-16.
66. Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (second edition). Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
67. Watson, J. (2008). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring (revised edition). University Press of Colorado
68. Watson, J. (1998). Reflections: Florence Nightingale and the enduring legacy of transpersonal human caring. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 16(2), 292-294.
69. Watson, J. & Brewer, B. B. (2015). Caring science research: Criteria, evidence, and measurement. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(5), 235- 236.
70. Watson, J. & Browning, R. (2012, August). Viewpoint: Caring science meets heart science: A guide to authentic caring practice. American Nurse Today, 7 (8). Retrieved from http://www.americannursetoday. com/article.aspx?id=9376&fid=9326 science. International Journal for Human Caring, 16(1), 59.
71. Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(5), 546-553. doi:10.1111/ j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x
72. Wolf, Z. (1986). The caring concept and nurse identified caring behaviors. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 9(2), 84-93.